Diabetes mellitus, commonly called diabetes simply, is a common disorder that affects the way the body processes and uses carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Each of these nutrients is a source of glucose (sugar), which is the most basic fuel body. The most obvious sign of diabetes is high blood sugar.
Glucose enters the cells of the body with the help of a hormone called insulin, which acts a bit like a keeper. Without insulin, which is produced by the pancreas, glucose can not pass through the cell wall and the cell “starving.” Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body’s cells do not respond effectively to insulin produced by the pancreas, a condition called insulin resistance. In people with insulin resistance, the pancreas produces more insulin at first to maintain a normal blood sugar level. Over time, such as insulin resistance progresses body, the pancreas is unable to keep pace with the demand for more and more insulin, and blood glucose levels rise.
Read more: Diabetes in Marathi
Types of Diabetes Marathi Information –
 Diabetes type 1 in Marathi:
• polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss associated with random plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg / dL.
• The plasma glucose 126 mg / dL or more after an overnight fast, documented on more than one occasion.
• ketonemia, ketonuria, or both.
• autoantibodies are frequently present.
 Type 2 diabetes in Marathi:
• Most patients are over 40 years of age and obesity.
• Polyuria and polydipsia. Ketonuria and weight loss in general are rare at the time of diagnosis. Candida vaginitis in women may be an initial manifestation. Many patients have few or no symptoms.
• The plasma glucose 126 mg / dL or more after an overnight fast on more than one occasion. After 75 g of oral glucose diagnostic values are 200 mg / dL or higher two hours after oral glucose.
• Hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis are often associated.
Signs & Symptoms of Diabetes Marathi information –
The symptoms of diabetes are related to high blood glucose levels. They include:
• Excessive urination, thirst and hunger
• Weight Loss
• Increased susceptibility to infections, especially yeast or fungal infections of the skin and vagina
Complication of Diabetes Marathi information –
Extremely high levels of blood sugar can lead to a dangerous complication called hyperosmolar syndrome, also known as hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) or hyperosmolar coma. Hyperosmolar syndrome is a potentially fatal form of dehydration that can result from untreated high blood sugar. Hyperosmolar syndrome may complicate severe acute illness such as stroke; It can also occur when poor fluid intake causes dehydration. In some cases, hyperosmolar coma is the first sign that a person has type 2 diabetes.
When people with type 2 diabetes take medications to reduce blood sugar, blood sugar levels can drop below the normal range and cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, tremors, dizziness, hunger and confusion. Hypoglycemia you do not recognize and correctly can cause seizures and loss of consciousness. You can correct hypoglycemia (raise blood sugar levels) by eating or drinking something with carbohydrates.
Type 2 diabetes affects all body systems and can cause serious life-threatening complications, including:
• Atherosclerosis> – The metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with the accumulation of fat in the walls of arteries. This can prevent the flow of blood to all organs. The heart, brain and legs are most affected.
• Retinopathy – In this disorder, the small blood vessels in the back of the eye are damaged by high blood sugar. It is detected early, retinopathy damage can be minimized by recovering a strict control of blood sugar and by using laser therapy. Untreated retinopathy can lead to blindness.
• Neuropathy – This is nerve damage. The most common type is peripheral neuropathy. The longest nerves in the body, legs, are damaged first, causing pain and numbness in the feet. This may progress to cause symptoms in the legs and hands. Autonomic neuropathy is damage to the nerves that control vital autonomic functions, such as digestion, sexual function and urination.
• Foot problems – Sores and blisters occur for two reasons. If peripheral neuropathy causes numbness, the person does not feel an irritation or pressure points on the foot. The skin may break and form an ulcer. In addition, blood flow may be poor, leading to slow cure. If left untreated, a simple sore can become infected and very large.
• Nephropathy – Damage to the kidneys is more likely if persistently high levels of sugar and high blood pressure in untreated aggressively maintained.
Diagnosis for Diabetes Marathi information –
Diabetes is diagnosed by blood tests for sugar levels. Blood was taken in the morning after fasting overnight. Normally, the body maintains sugar levels in the blood between 65 and 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL), even after fasting. If a blood sugar level after fasting is greater than 125 mg / dl, diabetes is diagnosed.
Your doctor will examine you for signs of complications or you have risk factors that increase the risk of complications. These include:
• Obesity, especially abdominal obesity (waist circumference greater than 40 inches in men or 35 inches for women)
• High blood pressure
• Deposits or areas that have been filtered from the blood in the retina, seen through an instrument called an ophthalmoscope during an eye exam
• Decreased sensation in the legs
• weak pulses in the feet or abnormal pulses in the abdomen
• Blisters, ulcers or infections of the feet
Laboratory tests routinely used to assess diabetes include:
• Fasting glucose, test your blood sugar in the blood after eating nothing for several hours
• The hemoglobin A1C, which indicates how close to an average of your blood glucose has been for the previous two months
• creatinine in blood and urine microalbumin evidence of renal disease
• lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL)) to assess the risk of atherosclerosis
Duration of information expected Marathi Diabetes –
Diabetes is a lifelong disease. Aging and episodic disease can cause insulin resistance of the body to increase, so usually requires additional treatment in time.
Prevention Diabetes Marathi Information –
Also read Diabetes diet chart in Marathi
You can help prevent type 2 diabetes by maintaining your ideal body weight, especially if you have a strong family history of diabetes. Diet and exercise have been shown to delay the onset of diabetes in people who are in the early stages of insulin resistance, identified by levels of blood sugar limit. Medication metformin (Glucophage) provides some additional protection for people with blood glucose levels that are between 110 and 125 mg / dL, diabetes near range. People with blood sugar levels in this range are sometimes said to have pre-diabetes.
If you already have type 2 diabetes, you can delay or prevent complications by maintaining a strict control of their blood sugar. In addition, you can reduce your risk of heart-related complications by taking a daily aspirin, and by aggressively managing other risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and triglycerides, smoking and obesity . Annual visits are recommended by an eye and foot specialist (podiatrist) to reduce eye and foot complications.
Treating Diabetes Marathi information –
In most people with type 2 diabetes, treatment begins with reducing weight through diet and exercise. A healthy diet for someone with diabetes is low in cholesterol, low in total calories, and nutritionally balanced with copious amounts of whole grain foods, monounsaturated oils, fruits and vegetables. A daily multivitamin for most people with diabetes is recommended.
Type 2 diabetes in most people can be controlled with medications taken by mouth (oral medications). Oral medications for type 2 diabetes include:
• Metformin (Glucophage), which improves insulin resistance in muscle tissue and liver
• Sulfonylureas, including glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase, Micronase), glipizide (Glucotrol), and others that increase the amount of insulin produced by the pancreas and released
• Repaglinide (Prandin) and nateglinide (Starlix), causing a burst of insulin release with each meal,
• Thiazolidinediones, including rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos), which decrease the conversion of fat to glucose, and improve insulin resistance
• Acarbose (Precose) and miglitol (Glyset), which delay absorption of sugars in the intestine.